Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)


cryosphere; microbes; climate change; pathogens; virus; biosecurity

Document Type

S & T and Society


The unique and extreme ecological environment of cryosphere acts as a gigantic reservoir of microorganisms, which preserves precious records of the diversity and evolutionary history of ancient microbes. Climate change and human activities have made significant impacts on the ecological system. Global warming causes melting of the cryosphere that remained frozen for thousands of years and releases microorganisms, some of them are recovered to life and constitute a potential threat to the ecological environment and human health. It is urgent to combine multidisciplinary research forces to investigate the microbial ecology of cryosphere, analyze the microbe pathogenesis and transmission mechanisms, as well as evaluate the biosecurity risks caused by the reboot of dormant microorganisms.

First page


Last Page





Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences


1 秦大河, 姚檀栋, 丁永建, 等. 冰冻圈科学体系的建立及意义. 中国科学院院刊, 2020, 35(4):394-406.

2 Charlier P, Claverie J M, Sansonetti P, et al. Re-emerging infectious diseases from the past:Hysteria or real risk?. European Journal of Internal Medicine, 2017, 44:28-30.

3 Houwenhuyse S, Macke E, Reyserhove L, et al. Back to the future in a petri dish:Origin and impact of resurrected microbes in natural populations. Evolutionary Applications, 2018, 11(1):29-41.

4 Cavicchioli R, Ripple W, Timmis K, et al. Scientists' warning to humanity:Microorganisms and climate change. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 2019, 17(9):569-586.

5 Sajjad W, Rafiq M, Din G, et al. Resurrection of inactive microbes and resistome present in the natural frozen world:Reality or myth?. Science of the Total Environment, 2020, 735:139275.

6 Boetius A, Aneesio A M, Deming J W, et al. Microbial ecology of the cryosphere:Sea ice and glacial habitats. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 2015, 13(11):677-690.

7 Cameron K A, Müller O, Stibal M, et al. Glacial microbiota are hydrologically connected and temporally variable. Environmental Microbiology, 2020, 22(8):3172-3187.

8 Miteva V. Psychrophiles:From Biodiversity to Biotechnology. Berlin, Heidelberg:Springer, 2008:31-50.

9 Perini L, Gostinčar C, Gunde-Cimerman N. Fungal and bacterial diversity of Svalbard subglacial ice. Scientific Reports, 2019, 9(1):20230.

10 Hassan N, Hasan F, Nadeem S, et al. Community analysis and characterization of fungi from Batura glacier, Karakoram mountain range, Pakistan. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 2018, 16(5):5323-5341.

11 Zhong Z P, Solonenko N E, Li Y F, et al. Glacier ice archives fifteen-thousand-year-old viruses. bioRxiv, 2020, doi:10.1101/2020.01.03.894675.

12 Woodcroft B J, Singleton C M, Boyd J A, et al. Genomecentric view of carbon processing in thawing permafrost. Nature, 2018, 560:49-54.

13 Cavicchioli R, Erdmann S. The discovery of Antarctic RNA viruses:A new game changer. Molecular Ecology, 2015, 24(19):4809-4811.

14 López-Bueno A, Rastrojo A, Peiró R, et al. Ecological connectivity shapes quasispecies structure of RNA viruses in an Antarctic lake. Molecular Ecology, 2015, 24(19):4812-4825

15 Adriaenssens E M, Kramer R, van Goethem M W, et al. Environmental drivers of viral community composition in Antarctic soils identified by viromics. Microbiome, 2017, 5(1):83.

16 Emerson J B, Roux S, Brum J R, et al. Host-linked soil viral ecology along a permafrost thaw gradient. Nature Microbiology, 2018, 3(8):870-880.

17 Zhong Z P, Rapp J Z, Wainaina J M, et al. Viral ecogenomics of arctic cryopeg brine and sea ice. mSystems, 2020, 16, 5(3):e00246-20.

18 Bellas C M, Anesio A M, Barker G. Analysis of virus genomes from glacial environments reveals novel virus groups with unusual host interactions. Frontiers in Microbiology, 2015, 6:656.

19 Rogers S O, Starmer W T, Castello J D. Recycling of pathogenic microbes through survival in ice. Medical Hypotheses, 2004, 63(5):773-777.

20 Barras C. Zombie creatures that have been resurrected after millions of years can help us understand the very nature of life. New Scientist, 2017, 234:34-37.

21 Turchetti B, Selbmann L, Blanchette R, et al. Cryptococcus vaughanmartiniae sp. nov and Cryptococcus onoforri sp. nov:Two new species isolated from worldwide cold environments. Extremophiles, 2015, 19:149-159.

22 Babič M N, Zupančič J, Gunde-Cimerman N, et al. Ecology of the human opportunistic black yeast exophiala dermatitidis indicates preference for human-made habitats. Mycopathologia, 2018, 183(1):201-212.

23 Gostinčar G, Grube M, Gunde-Cimerman N. Evolution of fungal pathogens in domestic environments. Fungal Biology, 2011, 115(10):1008-1018.

24 Edwards A, Douglas B, Anesio A M, et al. A distinctive fungal community inhabiting cryoconite holes on glaciers in Svalbard. Fungal Ecology, 2013, 6(2):168-176.

25 Knowlton C, Veerapaneni R, D'Elia T, et al. Microbial analyses of ancient ice core sections from Greenland and Antarctica. Biology, 2013, 2(1):206-232.

26 Brad T, Itcus C, Pascu M, et al. Fungi in perennial ice from Scări?oara Ice Cave (Romania). Scientific Reports, 2018, 8:10096.

27 Kochkina G, Ivanushkina N, Ozerskaya S, et al. Ancient fungi in Antarctic permafrost environments. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 2012, 82(2):501-509.

28 Goodwin K, Loso M, Braun M. Glacial transport of human waste and survival of fecal bacteria on mt. mckinley's kahiltna glacier, Denali National Park, Alaska. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 2012, 44(4):432-445.

29 Legendre M, Bartoli J, Shmakova L, et al. Thirty-thousandyear-old distant relative of giant icosahedral DNA viruses with a pandoravirus morphology. PNAS, 2014, 111(11):4274-4279.

30 Legendre M, Lartigue A, Bertaux L, et al. In-depth study of Mollivirus sibericum, a new 30,000-y-old giant virus infecting Acanthamoeba. PNAS, 2015, 112(38):5327-5335.

31 Biagini P, Theves C, Balaresque P, et al. Variola virus in a 300-year-old Siberian mummy. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2012, 367:2057-2059.

32 Castello J D, Rogers S O, Starmer W T, et al. Detection of tomato mosaic Tobamovirus RNA in ancient glacial ice. Polar Biology, 1999, 22(3):207-212.

33 Ng T F F, Chen L F, Zhou Y C, et al. Preservation of viral genomes in 700-year-old caribou feces from a subarctic ice patch. PNAS, 2014, 111(47):16842-16847.

34 Zhang G, Shoham D, Gilichinsky D, et al. Evidence of influenza a virus RNA in Siberian lake ice. Journal of Virology, 2006, 80(24):12229-12235.

35 Petrova M, Kurakov A, Shcherbatova N, et al. Genetic structure and biological properties of the first ancient multiresistance plasmid pKLH80 isolated from a permafrost bacterium. Microbiology, 2014, 160(10):2253-2263.

36 Perron G G, Whyte L, Turnbaugh P J, et al. Functional characterization of bacteria isolated from ancient arctic soil exposes diverse resistance mechanisms to modern antibiotics. PLoS One, 2015, 10(3):e0069533.

37 Bidle K, Lee S, Marchant D, et al. Fossil genes and microbes in the oldest ice on Earth. PNAS, 2007, 104(33):13455-13460.

38 Bhullar K, Waglechner N, Pawlowski A, et al. Antibiotic resistance is prevalent in an isolated cave microbiome. PLoS One, 2012, 7(4):e34953.

39 Segawa T, Takeuchi N, Rivera A, et al. Distribution of antibiotic resistance genes in glacier environments. Environmental Microbiology Reports, 2013, 5(1):127-134.

40 姚檀栋, 陈发虎, 崔鹏, 等. 从青藏高原到第三极和泛第三极. 中国科学院院刊, 2017, 32(9):924-931.