biological pump (BP), microbial carbon pump (MCP), carbonate carbon pump (CCP), marine carbon storage, ocean carbon negative emission geoengineering
Technical Roadmap and Strategic Thinking of Ocean Negative Emissions Aiming Carbon Neutrality
Micro-organisms such as bacteria, archaea, and viruses are an immense invisible driving force behind the ocean carbon cycle and play a pivotal role in global climate change. Atmospheric CO2 is transformed into depositing organic components with the help of marine planktonic organisms which act as a biological pump (BP). The labile organic components are then transformed into recalcitrant organic carbon (RDOC) through the action of bacteria, archaea, and other organisms and viruses, which are called the microbial carbon pump (MCP). RDOC can be stored over thousands of years in the water column and the accompanying particulate organic matter can further settle on the seafloor and be transformed into carbonate minerals (carbonate carbon pump, CCP) by the action of benthic microorganisms for storage over a longer time period. Based on a full understanding of marine microbial processes and mechanisms, this article explains the principles and advantages of carbon sequestration and carbon storage integrated with BP, MCP, and CCP by using an eco-engineering approach to develop ocean negative emission strategies. The engineering feasibility plan, facilitated with artificial intelligence measures, provides a theoretical basis and experimental scenario that can be monitored, reported, and verified for ocean carbon storage. The implementation of this plan will provide valuable information for achieving the important goal of carbon neutrality by 2060.
Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences
Original Submission Date
1 IPCC. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Global Warming of 1.5℃. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 2018.
2 Tortell P. Earth 2020:An Insider's Guide to a Rapidly Changing Planet. Cambridge:Open Book Publishers, 2020.
3 Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering, Greenhouse Gas Removal. London:Royal Society, 2018.
4 Duarte C M, Losada I J, Hendriks I E, et al. The role of coastal plant communities for climate change mitigation and adaptation. Nature Climate Change, 2013, 3(11):961-968.
5 Taillardat P, Friess D A, Lupascu M. Mangrove blue carbon strategies for climate change mitigation are most effective at the national scale. Biology Letters, 2018, 14(10):20180251.
6 Ilyina T, Wolf-Gladrow D, Munhoven G, et al. Assessing the potential of calcium-based artificial ocean alkalinization to mitigate rising atmospheric CO2 and ocean acidification. Geophysical Research Letters, 2013, 40(22):5909-5914.
7 张健,李佳芮,杨璐,等.中国滨海湿地现状和问题及管理对策建议.环境与可持续发展, 2019, 44(5):127-129.
8 秦大河,周波涛.气候变化与环境保护.科学与社会, 2014, 4(2):19-26.
9 刘慧,唐启升.国际海洋生物碳汇研究进展.中国水产科学, 2011, 18(3):695-702.
10 Lal R. Carbon sequestration. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B:Biological Sciences, 2008, 363:815-830.
11 Azam F, Smith D C, Steward G F, et al. Bacteria-organic matter coupling and its significance for oceanic carbon cycling. Microbial Ecology, 1994, 28(2):167-179.
12 焦念志,张传伦,李超,等.海洋微型生物碳泵储碳机制及气候效应.中国科学:地球科学, 2013, 43(1):1-18.
13 张传伦,孙军,刘纪化,等.海洋微型生物碳泵理论的发展与展望.中国科学:地球科学, 2019, 49(12):1933-1944.
14 Jiao N Z, Herndl G J, Hansell D A, et al. Microbial production of recalcitrant dissolved organic matter:Long-term carbon storage in the global ocean. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 2010, 8(8):593-599. 15焦念志.海洋固碳与储碳——并论微型生物在其中的重要作用.中国科学:地球科学, 2012, 42(10):1473-1486.
16 Zhang C L, Dang H Y, Azam F, et al. Evolving paradigms in biological carbon cycling in the ocean. National Science Review, 2018, 5(4):481-499.
17 Seifan M, Berenjian A. Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation:A widespread phenomenon in the biological world. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2019, 103(12):4693-4708.
18 Zhu T T, Dittrich M. Carbonate precipitation through microbial activities in natural environment, and their potential in biotechnology:A review. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, 2016, 4:1-21.
19 Wang Y Z, Soga K, DeJong J T, et al. Microscale visualization of microbial-induced calcium carbonate precipitation processes. ASCE Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 2019, 145(9):04019045.
20 Whiffin V S. Microbial CaCO
3 Precipitation for the Production of Biocement. Peth:Murdoch University, 2004.
21 Wang Y Z. Microbial-Induced Calcium Carbonate Precipitation:from Micro to Macro Scale. Cambridge:University of Cambridge, 2018.
22 Grotzinger J P, Rothman D H. An abiotic model for stromatolite morphogenesis. Nature, 1996, 383:423-425.
23 Hinrichs K U, Hayes J M, Sylva S P, et al. Methane-consuming archaebacteria in marine sediments. Nature, 1999, 398:802- 805.
24 Boetius A, Ravenschlag K, Schubert C J, et al. A marine microbial consortium apparently mediating anaerobic oxidation of methane. Nature, 2000, 407:623-626.
25 Vasconcelos C, McKenzie J A, Bernasconi S, et al. Microbial mediation as a possible mechanism for natural dolomite formation at low temperatures. Nature, 1995, 377:220-222.
26 Warthmann R, van Lith Y, Vasconcelos C, et al. Bacterially induced dolomite precipitation in anoxic culture experiments. Geology, 2000, 28(12):1091-1094.
27 Chang B, Li C, Liu D, et al. Massive formation of early diagenetic dolomite in the Ediacaran ocean:Constraints on the dolomite problem". PNAS, 2020, 117(25):14005-14014.
28 Bontognali T R R, McKenzie J A, Warthmann R J, et al. Microbially influenced formation of Mg-calcite and Ca-dolomite in the presence of exopolymeric substances produced by sulphate-reducing bacteria. Terra Nova, 2014, 26(1):72-77.
29 Ho S H, Chen C Y, Lee D J, et al. Perspectives on microalgal CO 2-emission mitigation systems-A review. Biotechnology Advances, 2011, 29(2):189-198.
30 Farrelly D J, Everard C D, Fagan C C, et al. Carbon sequestration and the role of biological carbon mitigation:A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2013, 21:712-727.
31 Riveros G A, Sadrekarimi A. Liquefaction resistance of Fraser River sand improved by a microbially-induced cementation. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 2020, 131:106034.
32 Montserrat F, Renforth P, Hartmann J, et al. Olivine dissolution in seawater:Implications for CO2 sequestration through enhanced weathering in coastal environments. Environmental Science&Technology, 2017, 51(7):3960-3972.
33 Mondal S, Ghosh A. Review on microbial induced calcite precipitation mechanisms leading to bacterial selection for microbial concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 2019, 225:67-75.
34 Rajasekar A, Moy C K S, Wilkinson S. MICP and advances towards eco-friendly and economical applications. IOP Conference Series:Earth and Environmental Science, 2017, 78(1):012016.
35 Rickard D, Luther G W III. Kinetics of pyrite formation by the H 2S oxidation of iron (II) monosulfide in aqueous solutions between 25 and 125 C:The Rate Equation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 1997, 61(1):115-147.
36 Olson S L, Ostrander C M, Gregory D D, et al. Volcanically modulated pyrite burial and ocean-atmosphere oxidation. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 2019, 506:417-427.
WANG, Yuze; LU, Yun; LIU, Jihua; and ZHANG, Chuanlun
"Advocating Eco-engineering Approach for Ocean Carbon Negative Emission,"
Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version): Vol. 36
, Article 6.
Available at: https://bulletinofcas.researchcommons.org/journal/vol36/iss3/6