North China Plain; groundwater overdraft; field water-saving theory and technology; Carbon and Nitrogen cycles in agroecosystems; nitrate leaching
North China Plain has achieved great success in pursuing high grain productivity in the past decades, however, the achievements in grain yield promotion was largely relies on great inputs of water and fertilizer, and already caused severe ecological problems, such as groundwater level decline and nitrate leaching. With focusing on the sustainable agriculture especially on the aspects of groundwater depletion and contamination risk, Luancheng Agro-ecosystem Experimental Station (LAES) has conducted a series of experiments or measurements since it was established in 1981, in order to explore the mechanisms of improving the water and nutrients use efficiency. With the efforts of several generations, we have revealed the mechanisms of water transferring in soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (SPAC) and established an interface regulatory theory for water saving agriculture. The interfaces refer to interfaces between soil and roots, leaf and ambient air, soil surface and air. According to more than 10 years of continuous field measurement of water and heat fluxes over the predominant wheat-maize double cropping system, we proposed an alternative cropping pattern of 4 crops in 3 years based on the seasonal and annual water budgets analysis. We also clarified the characteristics of carbon and nitrogen cycles in the irrigated wheat-maize field, determined GHGs emission and nitrate leaching fluxes, made some breakthroughs in nitrate transport and transformation in deep vadose zone, and nitrate reduction pathways in deep soil layers. We also developed some information technologies to increase the resource use efficiency and improve field management, such as portable leaf nutrient diagnosis system using smart phone camera, regional soil wetness and fertility monitoring and irrigation supporting system, etc., and assembled large amount of cultivation technology packages and production patterns in the past 30 years. With good applied effects, the innovations in both resource use theory and technologies have received wide attentions praise from farmers and governmental authorities. We will continue to research and develop innovative knowledge and technologies with considering the agricultural revolutions happening nowadays and provide great decision supporting for policy makers in future.
Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences
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Yanjun, SHEN; Chunsheng, HU; Xiying, ZHANG; Yisong, CHENG; Yuming, ZHANG; Yongqing, QI; Yucui, ZHANG; Leilei, MIN; Hongjun, LI; and Yabin, XU
"Long-term Ecological Research (LTER) Promotes Natural Resources Use Efficiency and Agricultural Sustainable Development in North China Plain,"
Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version): Vol. 33
, Article 17.
Available at: https://bulletinofcas.researchcommons.org/journal/vol33/iss6/17