microplastic pollution; freshwater; transport and transformation; ecological environment effect; management strategy
Microplastic pollution problems in freshwater environment have attracted growing attention from scholars at home and abroad. This work reviewed the research progress on microplastics in freshwater environment in China, analyzed the sources, environmental behavior and fate of microplastics in freshwater environment, and discussed the ecological environment effect of microplastic pollution. Studies showed that microplastic pollution is ubiquitously presented in rivers and lake in China. Microplastics have been detected with abundances up to 10 7 items/km 2 in freshwater, which is higher than those reported from marine environment. Microplastics detected in the freshwater environment showed different shape, size, and color features, are made from different polymer types, and are able to carry other contaminants. These features partly reflect the source and experience of microplastics, and are related to their environmental behavior and ecological environment effect. Research has also demonstrated that microplastics are commonly presented in fishes and mollusks collected from freshwater environment, microplastic exposure is able to affect the health of individual organisms as well as alter the structure and function of ecosystem. Therefore, microplastics are considered as emerging contaminants. In view of the microplastic pollution status and problem in freshwater environment, microplastic pollution control strategies were proposed based on watershed management thought. It is suggested that China should further improve the relevant policies and regulations, strengthen the implementation of policies and regulations, so as to ensure the health of freshwater ecosystem and the sustainable use of freshwater resources.
Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences
夏军, 翟金良, 占车生.我国水资源研究与发展的若干思考.地球科学进展, 2011, 26(9):905-915.
孟伟, 范俊韬, 张远.流域水生态系统健康与生态文明建设.环境科学研究, 2015, 28(10):1495-1500.
周倩, 章海波, 李远, 等.海岸环境中微塑料污染及其生态效应研究进展.科学通报, 2015, 60(33):3210-3220.
Eerkes M D, Thompson R C, Aldridge D C. Microplastics in freshwater systems:A review of the emerging threats, identification of knowledge gaps and prioritisation of research needs. Water Research, 2015, 75:63-82.
Rochman C M. Microplastics research-from sink to source. Science, 2018, 360(6384):28-29.
Zhang K, Gong W, Lv J Z, et al. Accumulation of floating microplastics behind the Three Gorges Dam. Environmental Pollution, 2015, 204:117-123.
Su L, Xue Y, Li L, et al. Microplastics in Taihu Lake, China. Environmental Pollution, 2016, 216:711-719.
Wang W F, Ndungu A W, Li Z, et al. Microplastics pollution in inland freshwaters of China:A case study in urban surface waters of Wuhan, China. Science of the Total Environment, 2017, 575:1369-1374.
Wang J D, Peng J P, Tan Z, et al. Microplastics in the surface sediments from the Beijiang River littoral zone:Composition, abundance, surface textures and interaction with heavy metals. Chemosphere, 2017, 171:248-258.
Peng G Y, Xu P, Zhu B S, et al. Microplastics in freshwater river sediments in Shanghai, China:A case study of risk assessment in mega-cities. Environmental Pollution, 2018, 234:448-456.
Wang W F, Yuan W K, Chen Y L, et al. Microplastics in surface waters of Dongting Lake and Hong Lake, China. Science of the Total Environment, 2018, 633:539-545
Zhang K, Shi H H, Peng J P, et al. Microplastic pollution in China's inland water systems:A review of findings, methods, characteristics, effects, and management. Science of the Total Environment, 2018, 630:1641-1653.
Lambert S, Scherer C, Wagner M. Ecotoxicity testing of microplastics:Considering the heterogeneity of physicochemical properties. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 2017, 13:470-475.
Zhang K, Xiong X, Hu H J, et al. Occurrence and characteristics of microplastic pollution in Xiangxi Bay of Three Gorges Reservoir, China. Environmental Science & Technology, 2017, 51:3794-3801.
Su L, Cai H W, Kolandhasamy P, et al. Using the Asian clam as an indicator of microplastic pollution in freshwater ecosystems. Environmental Pollution, 2018, 234:347-355.
Cole M, Lindeque P, Halsband C, et al. Microplastics as contaminants in the marine environment:A review. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2011, 62(12):2588-2597.
Cheung P K, Fok L. Characterization of plastic microbeads in facial scrubs and their estimated emissions in Mainland China. Water Research, 2017, 122:53-61.
Geyer R, Jambeck J R, Law K L. Production, use, and fate of all plastics ever made. Science Advance, 2017, 3:e1700782.
Liao Z P. China Plastics Industry (2010). China Plastics, 2011, 25(5):1-8.
Lebreton L C M, van der Zwet J, Damsteeg J W, et al. River plastic emissions to the world's oceans. Nature Communications, 2017, 8:15611.
Nizzetto L, Bussi G, Futter M N, et al. A theoretical assessment of microplastic transport in river catchments and their retention by soils and river sediments. Environmental Science:Processes & Impacts, 2016, 18 (8):1050-1059.
Jambeck J R, Geyer R, Wilcox C, et al. Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean. Science, 2015, 347(6223):768-771.
Gewert B, Plassmann M M, MacLeod M, et al. Pathways for degradation of plastic polymers floating in the marine environment. Environment Sci-Process Impacts, 2015, 17(9):1513-1521.
Eubeler J P, Bernhard M, Knepper T P. Environmental biodegradation of synthetic polymers Ⅱ. Biodegradation of different polymer groups. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 2010, 29(1):84-100.
Song Y K, Hong S H, Jang M, et al. Combined effects of UV exposure duration and mechanical abrasion on microplastic fragmentation by polymer type. Environmental Science & Technology, 2017, 51(8):4368-4376.
Rochman C M, Hoh E, Hentschel B T, et al. Long-term field measurement of sorption of organic contaminants to five types of plastic pellets:implications for plastic marine debris. Environmental Science & Technology, 2012, 47(3):1646-1654.
Hermabessiere L, Dehaut A, Paul-Pont I, et al. Occurrence and effects of plastic additives on marine environments and organisms:A review. Chemosphere, 2017, 182:781-793.
McCormick A, Hoellein T J, Mason S A, et al. Microplastic is an abundant and distinct microbial habitat in an urban river. Environmental Science & Technology, 2014, 48(20):11863-11871.
Rummel C D, Jahnke A, Gorokhova E, et al. Impacts of biofilm formation on the fate and potential effects of microplastic in the aquatic environment. Environmental Science & Technology Letter, 2017, 4(7):258-267.
Wright S L, Thompson R C, Galloway T S. The physical impacts of microplastics on marine organisms:A review. Environmental Pollution, 2013, 178:483-492.
Nelms S E, Galloway T S, Godley B J, et al. Investigating microplastic trophic transfer in marine top predators. Environmental Pollution, 2018, 238:999-1007.
Grigorakis S, Mason S A, Drouillard K G. Determination of the gut retention of plastic microbeads and microfibers in goldfish ( Carassius auratus). Chemosphere, 2017, 169:213-238.
Cole M, Lindeque P K, Fileman E, et al. Microplastics alter the properties and sinking rates of zooplankton faecal pellets. Environmental Science & Technology, 2016, 50 (6):3239-3246.
Auta H S, Emenike C U, Fauziah S H. Distribution and importance of microplastics in the marine environment:A review of the sources, fate, effects, and potential solutions. Environment International, 2017, 102:165-176.
Lenz R, Enders K, Nielsen T G. Microplastic exposure studies should be environmentally realistic. PNAS, 2016, 113:e4121-e4122.
Green D S, Boots B, Blockley D J, et al. Impacts of discarded plastic bags on marine assemblages and ecosystem functioning. Environmental Science & Technology, 2015, 49:5380-5389.
Kesy K, Oberbeckmann S, Müller F, et al. Polystyrene influences bacterial assemblages in Arenicola marina-populated aquatic environments in vitro. Environmental Pollution, 2016, 219:219-227.
Sussarellu R, Suquet M, Thomas Y, et al. Oyster reproduction is affected by exposure to polystyrene microplastics. PNAS, 2016, 113(9):2430-2435.
Rochman C M. Ecologically relevant data are policy-relevant data. Science, 2016, 352:1172.
Chenxi, WU; Xiangliang, PAN; Huahong, SHI; and Jinping, PENG
"Microplastic Pollution in Freshwater Environment in China and Watershed Management Strategy,"
Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version): Vol. 33
, Article 2.
Available at: https://bulletinofcas.researchcommons.org/journal/vol33/iss10/2