westerlies; Indian monsoon; Tibetan Plateau; environmental impact
The westerlies and the Indian monsoon are the primary atmospheric circulations impacting climate and environmental changes on the Tibetan Plateau. Our results reveal that both the intensity and extent influenced by these two circulations display distinct spatial and temporal patterns. Based on both the in-situ oxygen stable isotope in precipitation and simulation from high resolution isotopic GCM models, three modes of interaction between the westerlies and the Indian monsoon (the westerlies model; the transitional model; and the monsoonal model) were founded on the Tibetan Plateau. The lake sediment further evidence that the extents of three model domains display the temporally change. We also found three distinct change patterns of glaciers, lakes, and ecosystem on the Tibetan Plateau which corresponded to three models of interaction between the westerlies and the Indian monsoon. In the monsoon domain, it is characterized with greatest glacial retreat, widespread reduction in lake area, and the delay in green-up dates; in contrast, the stable or even increasing glacial volumes, significant lake expansion, and an advance in green-up dates were found in the westerlies domain; the relative complex process of glaciers, lakes, and ecosystem occurs in the transitional domain.
Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences
Qiu J. The Third Pole. Nature, 2008, 454(7203):393-396.
Immerzeel W W, Van Beek L P, Bierkens M F. Climate change will affect the Asian water towers. Science, 2010, 328(5984):1382-1385.
Ye D. Some characteristics of the summer circulation over the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau and its neighborhood. Bull Am Meteorol Soc, 1981, 62:14-19.
Gao J, Masson-Delmotte V, Yao T, et al. Precipitation water stable isotopes in the south Tibetan Plateau:observations and modeling. J Clim, 2011, 24:3161-3178.
Tian L, Yao T, Schuster P F, et al. Oxygen-18 concentrations in recent precipitation and ice cores on the Tibetan Plateau. J Geophys Res, 2003, 108(D9):469-474.
Yang X, Yao T, Yang W, et al. Isotopic signal of earlier summer monsoon onset in the Bay of Bengal. J Clim, 2012, 25:2509-2516.
Yao T, Masson-Delmotte V, Gao J, et al. A review of climatic controls on δ 18O in precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau:observations and simulations. Rev Geophys, 2013, 51(4):525-548.
Yu W, Yao T, Tian L, et al. Short-term variability in the dates of the Indian monsoon onset and retreat on the southern and northern slopes of the central Himalayas as determined by precipitation stable isotopes. Clim Dyn, 2016, 47(1-2):159-172.
Zhu L, Lu X, Wang J, et al. Climate change on the Tibetan Plateau in response to shifting atmospheric circulation since the LGM. Sci Rep, 2015, 5(5):13318.
Yao T, Thompson L, Yang W, et al. Different glacier status with atmospheric circulations in Tibetan Plateau and surroundings. Nat Clim Change, 2012, 2(9):663-667.
Lei Y, Yang K, Wang B, et al. Response of inland lake dynamics over the Tibetan Plateau to climate change. Clim Change, 2014, 125(2):281-290.
Shen M, Zhang G, Cong N, et al. Increasing altitudinal gradient of spring vegetation phenology during the last decade on the QinghaiTibetan Plateau. Agr For Meteorol, 2014, 189-190:71-80.
Shen M, Piao S, Cong N, et al. Precipitation impacts on vegetation spring phenology on the Tibetan Plateau. Glob Change Biol, 2015, 21(10):3647-3656.
Shen M, Sun Z, Wang S, et al. No evidence of continuously advanced green-up dates in the Tibetan Plateau over the last decade. PNAS, 2013, 110(26):E2329.
Piao S, Nan H, Huntingford C, et al. Evidence for a weakening relationship between interannual temperature variability and northern vegetation activity. Nat Commun, 2014, 5:5018.
Shen M, Piao S, Jeong S J, et al. Evaporative cooling over the Tibetan Plateau induced by vegetation growth. PNAS, 2015, 112:9299-9304.
Tandong, Yao; Shilong, Piao; Miaogen, Shen; Jing, Gao; Wei, Yang; Guoqing, Zhang; Yanbin, Lei; Yang, Gao; Liping, Zhu; Baiqing, Xu; Wusheng, Yu; and Shenghai, Li
"Chained Impacts on Modern Environment of Interaction between Westerlies and Indian Monsoon on Tibetan Plateau,"
Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version): Vol. 32
, Article 7.
Available at: https://bulletinofcas.researchcommons.org/journal/vol32/iss9/7