Tibetan Plateau; paleo-elevation; tropical; Ice Age; fauna
New genera and species of the climbing perch and cyprinine fish were discovered from the Oligocene strata in northern Tibet. On the other hand, all their extant close relatives live in the tropical regions of Asia and Africa. These discoveries not only are significant for the phylogeny and zoogeography of fishes, but also imply that the hinterland of the Tibet area was a warm and humid lowland at 26 Ma as suggested by the co-existing plant assemblage including palms and golden rain trees among others, indicating that the warm and humid air current of the Indian Ocean could flow deeply into northern Tibet at least. Since that time, the geographical features and natural environments within the Tibetan Plateau have greatly changed. The Tibetan Plateau was consistently uplifted in the Miocene, and then reached its modern elevation in the Pliocene so that a cryosphere environment appeared. The ancestor forms of the woolly rhino, snow leopard, arctic fox, and bighorn sheep were discovered from the Pliocene deposits in the Zanda Basin, which showed that the frigid-adapted Quaternary Ice Age fauna originated in the Tibetan Plateau. As a result, the Out of Tibet theory about the origin and expansion of cold-tolerated mammals were proposed and further improved.
Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences
董枝明.珠穆朗玛峰地区的鱼龙化石.中国科学院古脊椎动物与古人类研究所甲种专刊, 1972, 9:7-10.
张弥曼.西藏发现的旋齿鲨一新种.地质科学, 1976, (4):332-336.
Dong Z M, Milner A C. Dinosaurs from China. London:British Museum (Natural History), 1988.
Deng T, Ding L. Paleo-altimetry reconstructions of the Tibetan Plateau:progress and contradictions. Natl Sci Rev, 2015, 2(4):468-488.
Wang N, Wu F X. New Oligocene cyprinid in the central Tibetan Plateau documents the pre-uplift tropical lowlands. Ichthyol Res, 2015, 62:274-285.
DeCelles G P, Kapp P, Ding L, et al. Late Cretaceous to middle Tertiary basin evolution in the central Tibetan Plateau:changing environments in response to tectonic partitioning, aridification, and regional elevation gain. Geol Soc Am Bull, 2007, 119:654-680.
Wu F X, Miao D S, Chang M M, et al. Fossil climbing perch and associated plant megafossils indicate a warm and wet central Tibet during the Late Oligocene. Sci Rep, 2017, 7:878.
曹文宣, 陈宜瑜, 武云飞, 等. 裂腹鱼类的起源和演化及其与青藏高原隆起的关系. //中国科学院青藏高原综合科学考察队编. 青藏高原隆起的时代、幅度和形式问题. 北京: 科学出版社, 1981. 118-130.
武云飞, 陈宜瑜.西藏北部新第三纪的鲤科鱼类化石.古脊椎动物与古人类, 1980, 18:15-22.
张弥曼, 苗德岁.青藏高原的新生代鱼化石及其古环境意义.科学通报, 2016, 61 (9):981-995.
Pekar S F, DeConto R M. High-resolution ice-volume estimates for the Early Miocene:evidence for a dynamic ice sheet in Antarctica. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol, 2006, 231:101-109.
Deng T, Wang S Q, Xie G P, et al. 2012. A mammalian fossil from the Dingqing Formation in the Lunpola Basin, northern Tibet and its relevance to age and paleo-altimetry. Chin Sci Bull, 2012, 57(2/3):261-269.
Sun B, Wang Y F, Li C S, et al. Early Miocene elevation in northern Tibet estimated by palaeobotanical evidence. Sci Rep, 2015, 5:10379.
Yue L P, Deng T, Zhang R, et al. Paleomagnetic chronology and record of Himalayan movements in the Longgugou section of Gyirong-Oma Basin in Xizang (Tibet). Chin J Geophys, 2004, 47(6):1135-1142.
Deng T, Li Y M. Vegetational ecotype of the Gyirong Basin in Tibet, China and its response in stable carbon isotopes of mammal tooth enamel. Chin Sci Bull, 2005, 50(12):1225-1229.
Wang Y, Deng T, Biasatti D. Ancient diets indicate significant uplift of southern Tibet after ca. 7 Ma. Geology, 2006, 34(4):309-312.
Zachos J, Pagani M, Sloan L, et al. Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to Present. Science, 2001, 292:686-693.
Deng T, Li Q, Tseng Z J, et al. Locomotive implication of a Pliocene three-toed horse skeleton from Tibet and its paleoaltimetry significance. PNAS, 2012, 109(19):7374-7378.
Darwin C. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life. London:John Murray, 1859.
Deng T, Wang X M, Fortelius M, et al. Out of Tibet:Pliocene woolly rhino suggests high-plateau origin of Ice Age megaherbivores. Science, 2011, 333:1285-1288.
Wang X M, Wang Y, Li Q, et al. Cenozoic vertebrate evolution and paleoenvironment in Tibetan Plateau:progress and prospects. Gondwana Res, 2015, 27(4):1335-1354.
Tseng Z J, Wang X M, Slater G J, et al. Himalayan fossils of the oldest known pantherine establish ancient origin of big cats. Proc Roy Soc B, 2014, 281:20132686.
Wang X M, Tseng Z J, Li Q, et al. From "Third Pole"to North Pole:a Himalayan origin for the arctic fox. Proc Roy Soc B, 2014, 281:20140893.
Wang X M, Li Q, Takeuchi G T. Out of Tibet:an early sheep from the Pliocene of Tibet, Protovis himalayensis, gen. et sp. nov. (Bovidae, Caprini), and origin of Ice Age mountain sheep. J Vert Paleont, 2016, 36:e1169190.
Wang Y, Xu Y F, Khawajia S, et al. Diet and environment of a mid-Pliocene fauna from southwestern Himalaya:paleo-elevation implications. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 2013, 376:43-53.
Tao, Deng; Xiaoming, Wang; Qiang, Li; and Feixiang, Wu
"Tibetan Plateau: From Paradise of Tropical Animals and Plants to Cradle of Ice Age Mammalian Fauna,"
Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version): Vol. 32
, Article 5.
Available at: https://bulletinofcas.researchcommons.org/journal/vol32/iss9/5