town dislocation; urbanization; place attachment; subjective & objective indices; social support
Understanding urbanization and evaluating its effects are vital in formulating Chinese sustainable development. The results obtained from evaluating the effects of urbanization, however, depend on the type of measurement used (adopting subjective and objective indices). Through a review of previous studies, the present study found that the objective index improved monotonically along with urbanization in China, whereas the subjective index, place attachment, did not improve along with the urbanization level in China. The assessment scores from the city dwellers did not differ significantly from those in the country areas and, more surprisingly, both were significantly higher than the assessment scores of the town dwellers, which were expected to fall between the assessment scores of the country and city dwellers. The present study dubbed this V-shaped relationship the "town dislocation effect". Further literature reviews and data analysis showed that place attachment is affected mainly by demographic variables, social support, and physical environment. Therefore, people should focus on both objective and subjective indices in the assessment of urbanization in China.
Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences
国家统计局人口和就业统计司. 中国人口和就业统计年鉴 (2015). 北京:中国统计出版社, 2015.
孟祥斐, 华学成. 被动城市化群体的转型适应与社会认同——基于江苏淮安市失地农民的实证研究. 学海, 2008, (2):23-30.
Easterlin R A. Does economic growth improve the human lot? some empirical evidence. In:David P A, Reder M W, Eds. Nations & Households in Economic Growth. New York:Academic Press, 1974. 89-125.
Easterlin R A, Morgan R, Switek M, et al. China's life satisfaction, 1990-2010. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2012, 109(25):9775-9780.
薛德升, 曾献君. 中国人口城镇化质量评价及省际差异分析. 地理学报, 2016, 71(2):194-204.
刘思. 现代城市化水平评价指标体系的构建. 统计与决策, 2006, (10):68-69.
台冰, 李怀祖. 综合城市化水平测度研究. 学术界, 2006, (5):190-194.
都沁军, 武强. 基于指标体系的区域城市化水平研究. 城市发展研究, 2006, 13(5):5-8.
Campbell D T. On the conflicts between biological and social evolution and between psychology and moral tradition. Zygon, 1976, 11(11):167-208.
Andrews F M, Withey S B. Developing measures of perceived life quality:results from several national surveys. Social Indicators Research, 1974, 1(1):1-26.
Veenhoven R. Why social policy needs subjective indicators. Social Indicators Research, 2001, 58(1-3):33-46.
Jorgensen B S, Stedman R C. Sense of place as an attitude:lakeshore owners attitudes toward their properties. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 2001, 21(3):233-248.
Stokols N, Shumaker S A. People in places:a transactional view of settings. Cognition, Social Behavior, and the Environment, 1981, 441-488.
Hummon D M. Community attachment:local sentiment and sense of place. Human Behavior & Environment Advances in Theory & Research, 1992,12:253-278.
Giuliani M V. Theory of attachment and place attachment//Psychological Theories for Environmental Issues. Aldershot:Ashgate, 2003. 137-170.
Hernández B, Carmen Hidalgo M, Salazar-Laplace M E, et al. Place attachment and place identity in natives and non-natives. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 2007, 27(4):310-319.
Knez I. Attachment and identity as related to place and its perceived climate. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 2005, 25(2):207-218.
Lewicka M. Ways to make people active:role of place attachment, cultural capital and neighborhood ties. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 2005, 25(4):381-395.
Manzo L C. Beyond house and haven:toward a revisioning of emotional relationships with places. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 2003, 23(1):47-61.
Proshansky H M, Fabian A K, Kaminoff R. Place-identity:physical world socialization of the self. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 1983, 3(1):57-83.
Twigger-Ross C L, Uzzell D L. Place and identity processes. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 1996, 16(3):205-220.
John D, Kevin D. Displacing place-identity:a discursive approach to locating self and other. British Journal of Social Psychology, 2000, 39 (Pt1):27-44.
Scannell L, Gifford R. Defining place attachment:a tripartite organizing framework. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 2010, 30(1):1-10.
Fried M. Continuities and discontinuities of place. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 2000, 20(3):193-205.
Fullilove M T. Psychiatric implications of displacement:contributions from the psychology of place. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1996, 153(12):1516-1523.
Brown B, Perkins D D, Brown G. Place attachment in a revitalizing neighborhood:individual and block levels of analysis. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 2003, 23(3):259-271.
Billig M. Is my home my castle? Place attachment, risk perception, and religious faith. Environment & Behavior, 2006, 38(2):248-265.
Rollero C, De Piccoli N. Place attachment, identification and environment perception:an empirical study. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 2010, 30(2):198-205.
Vugt M V. Community identification moderating the impact of financial incentives in a natural social dilemma:water conservation. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 2001, 27(11):1440-1449.
Kyle G, Graefe A, Manning R. Spatial variation in level of place attachment//2005 Proceedings of the 2004 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-326. Pennsylvania:US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station, 2005. 14-19.
Moore R L, Graefe A R, Gitelson R J. Living near greenways:neighboring landowners' experiences with and attitudes toward rail-trails. Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, 1994, 12(1):79-93
Williams D R, Stewart S I. Sense of place:an elusive concept that is finding a home in ecosystem management. Journal of Forestry, 1998, 96(5):18-23.
Kyle G, Graefe A, Manning R, et al. Effect of activity involvement and place attachment on recreationists' perceptions of setting density. Journal of Leisure Research, 2004, 36(Second Quarter):209-231.
Vorkinn M, Riese H. Environmental concern in a local context:the significance of place attachment. Environment & Behavior, 2001, 33(2):249-263.
Stedman R C. Toward a social psychology of place:predicting behavior from place-based cognitions, attitude, and identity. Environment & Behavior, 2002, 34(5):561-581.
Brown B B, Perkins D D. Disruptions in place attachment. New York:Springer US, 1992.
Hidalgo M C, Hernández B. Place attchment:conceptual and empirical questions. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 2001, 21(3):273-281.
Boğaç C. Place attachment in a foreign settlement. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 2009, 29(2):267-278.
连淑芳. 内-外群体偏爱的内隐效应实验研究. 心理科学, 2005, 28(1):93-95.
Wang F, Li S, Bai X W, et al. Town mouse or country mouse:Identifying a town dislocation effect in chinese urbanization. PLoS One, 2015, 10(5):e0125821.
贾巧枝. 成都市城乡居民的主观幸福感比较研究.成都:四川师范大学, 2009.
曾慧超, 袁岳, 高萍. 2004年中国居民生活质量报告. 创造, 2005, (4):64-64.
罗楚亮. 城乡分割、就业状况与主观幸福感差异. 经济学, 2006, (3):817-840.
Lewicka M. What makes neighborhood different from home and city? Effects of place scale on place attachment. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 2010, 30(1):35-51.
Lalli M. Urban-related identity:theory, measurement, and empirical findings. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 1992, 12(4):285-303.
黄飞, 周明洁, 庄春萍, 等. 本地人与外地人地方认同的差异:基于四地样本的证据. 心理科学, 2016, 39(2):468-473.
Casal A, Aragones J I, Moser G. Attachment forever:environmental and social dimensions, temporal perspective, and choice of one's last resting place. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 2010, 42(6):765-778.
Morgan P. Towards a developmental theory of place attachment. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 2010, 30(1):11-22.
Aronsson L, Hall C M, Müller D K. Place attachment of vacation residents:between tourists and permanent residents//Tourism, Mobility and Second Homes:Between Elite Landscape and Common Ground. Bristol:Channelview Publications, 2004. 75-86.
Kelly G, Hosking K. Nonpermanent residents, place attachment, and "sea change" communities. Environment & Behavior, 2008, 40(4):575-594.
Bonaiutoa M, Aielloa A, Peruginib M. Multidimensional perception of residential environment quality and neighborhood attachment in the urban environment. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 1999, 19(4):331-352.
Harris P B, Brown B B, Werner C M. Privacy regulation and place attachment:predicting attachments to a student family housing facility. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 1996, 16(4):287-301.
Brown R, Williams J. Group identification:the same thing to all people? Human Relations, 1984, 37(7):547-564.
Ellemers N, Kortekaas P, Ouwerkerk J W. Self-categorization, commitment to the group and social self-esteem as related but distinct aspects of social identity. European Journal of Social Psychology, 1999, 29(23):371-389.
Low S M, Altman I. Place attachment:A Conceptual Inquiry. NewYork:Plenum Press,1992.
Prezza M, Amici M, Roberti T, et al. Sense of community referred to the whole town:its relations with neighboring, loneliness, life satisfaction, and area of residence. Journal of Community Psychology, 2001, 29(1):29-52.
Tartaglia S. A preliminary study for a new model of sense of community. Journal of Community Psychology, 2006, 34(1):25- 36.
Dallago L, Perkins D D, Santinello M, et al. Adolescent place attachment, social capital, and perceived safety:a comparison of 13 countries. American Journal of Community Psychology, 2009, 44(1-2):148-160.
Wirth L. Urbanism as a way of life. American Journal of Sociology, 1938, 44(1):1-24.
Milgram S. The experience of living in cities. Science, 1970, 167(3924):1461-1468.
Francis J, Giles-Corti B, Wood L, et al. Creating sense of community:the role of public space. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 2012, 32(4):401-409.
Tabernero C, Valera S, Vidal T. Influence of environmental perception of the neighbourhood on place attachment:the impact of the physical care of the neighbourhood. Estudios De Psicología, 2013, 34(3):299-307.
Kamalipour H, Yeganeh A J, Alalhesabi M. Predictors of place attachment in urban residential environments:a residential complex case study. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2012, 35:459-467.
Fornara F, Bonaiuto M, Bonnes M. Cross-validation of abbreviated perceived residential environment quality (PREQ) and neighborhood attachment (NA) indicators. Environment & Behavior, 2010, 42(2):171-196.
Lisa W P D. The coffee shop:social and physical factors influencing place attachment. Journal of Interior Design, 2006, 31(3):35-53.
von Wirth T, Grêt-Regamey A, Moser C, et al. Exploring the influence of perceived urban change on residents' place attachment. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 2016, 46:67-82.
Shu, Li; Huan, Liu; and Rui, Zheng
"Town Dislocation Effect in Chinese Urbanization,"
Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version): Vol. 32
, Article 3.
Available at: https://bulletinofcas.researchcommons.org/journal/vol32/iss2/3