microplastic pollution; marine environment; ecological and health hazard; risk management
In the last decade, microplastic pollution in marine environments has aroused great concern of international society. The adverse biological impacts of microplastics on marine biota directly promote the issue of laws to ban the sale or distribution of cosmetics containing synthetic plastic microbeads. However, it is still necessary to find more scientific evidences for the testification of potential harms of microplastics to the ecological and human health in order to take the further action to manage and control the global microplastic pollution. This paper emphasizes that it is urgent to study the ecological and health hazards of marine microplastics. The prospects and challenges in this field are also discussed. Furthermore, the measures to solve microplastic pollution in marine environments are proposed and a precautionary principle in administration is recommended with an aim to elevate management capacity for controlling microplastic pollution in marine environments in the future.
Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences
Thompson R C, Olsen Y, Mitchell R P, et al. Lost at sea:Where is all the plastic? Science, 2004, 304:838.
GESAMP. Sources, Fate and Effects of Microplastics in the Marine Environment:A Global Assessment. London:International Maritime Organization, 2015:90-96.
Cole M, Lindeque P, Halband C, et al. Microplastics as contaminants in the marine environment. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2011, 62:2588-2597.
UNEP. Plastic debris in the ocean//UNEP Year Book 2014: Emerging Issues in Our Global Environment. Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme, 2011: 48-53.
周倩, 章海波, 李远, 等.海岸环境中微塑料污染及其生态效应研究进展.科学通报, 2015, 60 (33):3210-3220.
Zeng E Y. Microplastic Contamination in Aquatic Environments: An Emerging Matter of Environmental Urgency. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2018.
Eerkes-Medrano D, Thompson R C, Aldridge D C. Microplastics in freshwater systems:a review of the emerging threats, identification of knowledge gaps and prioritisation of research needs. Water Research, 2015, 75:63-82.
Lebreton L C M, van der Zwet J, Damsteeg J W, et al. River plastic emissions to the world's oceans. Nature Communications, 2017, 8:1-10.
Norén F. Small Plastic Particles in Coastal Swedish Waters. Lerwick: KIMO Sweden, Lysekil, 2007: 3-11.
Cózar A, Echevarríaa F, González-Gordilloa J I, et al. Plastic debris in the open ocean. PNAS, 2014, 111(28):10239-10244.
Eriksen M, Lebreton L C M, Carson H S, et al. Plastic pollution in the world's oceans:more than 5 trillion plastic pieces weighing over 250, 000 tons afloat at sea. PLoS One, 2014, 9:e111913.
Law K L, Moret-Ferguson S E, Goodwin D S, et al. Distribution of surface plastic debris in the eastern Pacific Ocean from an 11-year data set. Environmental Science & Technology, 2014, 48:4732-4738.
高丰蕾, 李景喜, 孙承君, 等.微塑料富集金属铅元素的能力与特征分析.分析测试学报, 2017, (8):1018-1022.
Brennecke D, Duarte B, Paiva F, et al. Microplastics as vector for heavy metal contamination from the marine environment. Estuarine Coastal & Shelf Science, 2016, 178:189-195.
Batel A, Borchert F, Reinwald H, et al. Microplastic accumulation patterns and transfer of benzo[a]pyrene to adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) gills and zebrafish embryos. Environmental Pollution, 2018, 235:918-930.
Zhou Q, Zhang H B, Fu C C, et al. The distribution and morphology of microplastics in coastal soils adjacent to the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea. Geoderma, 2018, 322:201-208.
Zurcher N A. Small Plastic Debris on Beaches in Hong Kong: An Initial Investigation. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Theses Online, 2009.
周倩, 章海波, 周阳, 等.滨海潮滩土壤中微塑料的分离及其表面微观特征.科学通报, 2016, 61(14):1604-1611.
Zhang W, Ma X, Zhang Z, et al. Persistent organic pollutants carried on plastic resin pellets from two beaches in China. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2015, 99(1-2):28-34.
孙承君, 蒋凤华, 李景喜, 等.海洋中微塑料的来源、分布及生态环境影响研究进展.海洋科学进展, 2016, 34(4):449-461.
Sun X X, Liang J H, Zhu M L, et al. Microplastics in seawater and zooplankton from the Yellow Sea. Environmental Pollution, 2018, 242:585-595.
Li J N, Yang D Q, Li L, et al. Microplastics in commercial bivalves from China. Environmental Pollution, 2015, 207:190-195.
Li H X, Ma L S, Lin L, et al. Microplastics in oysters Saccostrea cucullata along the Pearl River Estuary, China. Environmental Pollution, 2018, 236:619-625.
Jabeen K, Su L, Li J N, et al. Microplastics and mesoplastics in fish from coastal and fresh waters of China. Environmental Pollution, 2017, 221:141-149.
Zhao S Y, Zhu L X, Li D J, et al. Microscopic anthropogenic litter in terrestrial birds from Shanghai, China:Not only plastics but also natural fibers. Science of the Total Environment, 2016, 550:1110-1115.
Lusher A L, Hernandez-Milian G, O'Brien J, et al. Microplastic and macroplastic ingestion by a deep diving, oceanic cetacean:The True's beaked whale Mesoplodon mirus. Environmental Pollution, 2015, 199:185-191.
Kolandhasamy P, Su L, Li J N, et al. Adherence of microplastics to soft tissue of mussels:A novel way to uptake microplastics beyond ingestion. Science of the Total Environment, 2018, 610:635-640.
Galloway T S, Lewis C N. Marine microplastics spell big problems for future generations. PNAS, 2016, 113:2331-2333.
Browne M A, Dissanayake A, Galloway T S, et al. Ingested microscopic plastic translocates to the circulatory system of the mussel, Mytilus edulis (L.). Environmental Science & Technology, 2008, 42(13):5026-5031.
von Moos N, Burkhardt-Holm P, Koehler A. Uptake and effects of microplastics on cells and tissue of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis L. after an experimental exposure. Environmental Science & Technology, 2012, 46(20):11327-11335.
Catarino A I, Macchia V, Sanderson W G, et al. Low levels of microplastics (MP) in wild mussels indicate that MP ingestion by humans is minimal compared to exposure via household fibers fallout during a meal. Environmental Pollution, 2018, 237:675-684.
Rochman C M, Hoh E, Hentschel Brian T, et al. Long-term field measurement of sorption of organic contaminants to five types of plastic pellets:Implications for plastic marine debris. Environmental Science & Technology, 2013, 47(3):1646-1654.
Wang F, Shih K M, Li X Y, et al. The partition behavior of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanesulfonamide (FOSA) on microplastics. Chemosphere, 2015, 119:841-847.
Hirai H, Takada H, Ogata Y, et al. Organic micropollutants in marine plastics debris from the open ocean and remote and urban beaches. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2011, 62(8):1683-1692.
Bakir A, Rowland S J, Thompson R C. Transport of persistent organic pollutants by microplastics in estuarine conditions. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, 2014, 140:14-21.
Ma Y N, Huan A N, Cao S Q, et al. Effects of nanoplastics and microplastics on toxicity, bioaccumulation, and environmental fate of phenanthrene in fresh water. Environmental Pollution, 2016, 219:166-173.
Browne M A, Niven S J, Galloway T S, et al. Microplastic moves pollutants and additives to worms, reducing functions linked to health and biodiversity. Current Biology, 2013, 23(23):2388-2392.
Zettler E R, Mincer T J, Amaral-Zettler L A. Life in the "Plastisphere":Microbial communities on plastic marine debris. Environmental Science & Technology, 2013, 47(13):7137-7146.
Harrison J P, Sapp M, Schratzberger M, et al. Interactions between microorganisms and marine microplastics:A call for research. Marine Technology Society Journal, 2011, 45(2):12-20.
Keswani A, Oliver D M, Gutierrez T, et al. Microbial hitchhikers on marine plastic debris:Human exposure risks at bathing waters and beach environments. Marine Environmental Research, 2016, 118:10-19.
Kirstein I V, Kirmizi S, Wichels A, et al. Dangerous hitchhikers? Evidence for potentially pathogenic Vibrio spp. on microplastic particles. Marine Environmental Research, 2016, 120:1-8.
Lamb J, Willis B, Fiorenza E, et al. Plastic waste associated with disease on coral reefs. Science, 2018, 359:460-462.
Mintenig S M, Bauerlein P S, Koelmans A A. Closing the gap between small and smaller:towards a framework to analyse nano-and microplastics in aqueous environmental samples. Environmental Science-Nano, 2018, 5(7):1640-1649.
Galgani F. Marine litter within the European marine strategy framework directive, Cham. Ices Journal of Marine Science, 2013, 70(6):1055-1064.
OSPAR. Request on development of a common monitoring protocol for plastic particles in fish stomachs and selected shellfish on the basis of existing fish disease survey//ICES Special Request Advice Book 1. London: OSPAR Commission, 2015: 1-6.
European Commission. Green Paper: On a European Strategy on Plastic Waste in the Environment.[2013-07-03].
UNEP. Plastic in Cosmetics, Are We Polluting the Environment through Our Personal Cares. Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 2015.
Jambeck J R, Geyer R, Wilcox C, et al. Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean. Science, 2015, 347:768-771.
Xiangrong, XU; Chengjun, SUN; Rong, JI; Juying, WANG; Chenxi, WU; Huahong, SHI; and Yongming, LUO
"Strengthening Ecological and Health Hazards Study of Marine Microplastics and Promoting Risk Regulatory and Control Capacities,"
Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version): Vol. 33
, Article 1.
Available at: https://bulletinofcas.researchcommons.org/journal/vol33/iss10/1